Treatment for glaucoma aims to lower the intraocular pressure and prevent further damage to the optic nerve. The primary treatment options include eye drops, laser surgery, and conventional surgery.
Eye drops: These are the most common form of treatment and work by reducing the production or improving the outflow of aqueous humour from the eye. Eye drops must be used as prescribed by the ophthalmologist and on a long-term basis to manage the condition.
Laser surgery: This procedure uses a focused beam of light to create small openings in the drainage system of the eye, allowing for improved fluid outflow and reducing intraocular pressure. The laser is also thought to remodel the outflow apparatus, increasing aqueous humour outflow.
Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS): This procedure is done through tiny incisions through the cornea (clear window in front of the coloured iris) where stents are used to increase drainage, aiming to reduce or eliminate the need for glaucoma eye drops or more involved invasive surgery.
Conventional surgery: In some cases, conventional surgery may be required to lower intraocular pressure to prevent further progression of field loss. During this procedure, the ophthalmologist creates a new drainage channel for the aqueous humour to flow out of the eye, through the sclera (white wall of the eye), usually under the upper eyelid. The aqueous humour is then absorbed by the surrounding tissues.